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​India is undertaking major military reforms to enhance its capability to fight possible wars with Pakistan and China as Prime Minister Narendra Modi settles into his second term.

随着印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪进入第二个任期,印度正在进行重大军事改革,目的是增强能力,迎接可能发生的与巴基斯坦和中国的战争。

The reforms are redrawing military concepts and formations and junking plans that have prevailed for more than 80 years in institutions that have been slow to reform. They are also moving forces up much closer to the front lines for quicker mobilization. Previously, this used to happen only when war was imminent.

这些改革正在重新制定军事理念和结构,并废除在改革缓慢的机构中盛行了80多年的计划。他们还把部队调到离前线更近的地方,以便更快地实施动员。以前,只有在战争迫在眉睫的时候才会发生这种情况。



In the seven decades since independence, India has fought five wars, launched two expeditionary operations and built the third-largest standing army in the world. But the structures and methods of fighting a war have remained the same, with some incremental changes implemented periodically.

独立之后的70年以来,印度打了5场战争,发动了两次快速行动,并建立了全世界第三大的常备军。但是其军事结构和作战方法却一成不变,偶尔进行一些增量性质的改变。

However, all that changed when India was surprised by Pakistani military intrusions in Kashmir and a sharp, short conflict, known as the Kargil war, was fought in the summer of 1999. This resulted in a realization that modern warfare needed new ideas.

然而,当1999年夏季,巴基斯坦军队突入克什米尔,并引发了一场激烈而短暂的冲突——被称作卡吉尔战争,印度大吃一惊,一切都变了。这件事让印度人意识到,现代战争需要现代思维。

On December 13, 2001, Pakistani terrorists stormed India’s Parliament. India reacted with fury and mobilized the army under Operation Parakram and sent them to the border and war seemed imminent. But 10 months later the Indian Army returned to its barracks, after international pressure and mediation drew promises from Pakistan to rope in terror attacks from its soil.

2011年12月13日,巴基斯坦恐怖分子突袭了印度的国会。印度愤怒地做出反应,以帕拉克拉姆行动为名动员军队,把他们派到边境,战争似乎迫在眉睫。但10个月后,在国际社会的压力和斡旋下,巴基斯坦承诺在其领土上阻止恐怖袭击,印度军队也回到了军营。

However, Indian military planners knew their age-old plans and formations for war had been rendered useless, and it was time to draw up new plans.

然而,印度的军事规划者们知道,他们古老的作战计划和阵形已经毫无用处,现在是制定新计划的时候了。

Fighting new wars

【进行新的战争】



The Pivot Corps were essentially defensive formations that can turn around and launch offensive operations once the strike formations established dominance. However, this became obsolete as the Pakistanis and Chinese also changed their strategies.

枢纽军团本质上是防御性部队,一旦攻击部队确立了优势地位,他们就可以改头换面发动攻势。然而,随着巴基斯坦和中国也改变了他们的战略,这种做法变得过时了。

“Cold Start was a vague term. We knew that any military operation was unlikely to last for a long time due to international pressure,” said Lieutenant General KJ Singh, an armored corps officer who rose to head India’s Western Army Command.

“冷启动是一个模糊的术语。我们都知道,由于国际压力,任何军事行动都不可能持续太长时间,”KJ Singh中将说。他曾是一名装甲部队军官,后来晋升为印度西部陆军司令。

“Therefore, we had to fall back on the concept of SNIPE – Short Notice Intense Proactive Escalatory operations. The fighting elements of our Strike Corps were too far behind the front lines, and they were too large to mobilize without being noticed. This needed to change.”

“所以,我们必须回到SNIPE(狙击)的概念上来——临时通知积极主动的扩大行动。我们打击军的作战要素距离前线太远了,而且过于庞大,稍有移动就会被发现。这一点需要做出改变。”

India is now moving towards Integrated Battle Groups, that are much smaller than the Corps but carry nearly as much firepower. It is taking the key elements of offensive operations from its Strike Corps, while also dipping into the Pivot Corps. This meant freeing up a lot of “captive” offensive capabilities and combining them for optimum use.

印度现在正在向综合战斗群转变,综合战斗群的规模比军团小得多,但是携带的火力几乎差不多。它既采用了打击军团攻击行动的关键要素,也涉及到枢纽军团。这意味着释放了大量“受到约束”的攻击能力,并将其整合加以优化利用。

“We realized that Pivot Corps had significant reserves of armor and infantry. So we can look at eight to 10 independent battle groups in a situation where we only had one Strike Corps,” Hooda said.

“我们意识到,打击军团拥有大量的装甲和步兵储备,所以利用一个打击军团的资源,我们可以组成8-10个独立的战斗集群,”Hooda说。



In regard to China, the traditional strategic thought in India for decades was that size would be the decisive factor. By 2012, India was all set to raise a Strike Corps for offensives against China.

说到中国,印度几十年来的传统战略是数量决定论。在2012年以前,印度将所有力量都用于建立一支针对中国的打击军团。

“The idea was that we need a ratio of 9:1 superiority to tackle any adversary in the mountains. But the costs and the challenges of maintaining such a massive force with a chronic resource crunch made that impossible,” a senior serving military official told Asia Times.

“我们当时的想法是利用9:1的人数优势,来阻挡(中国)在山区进行的任何进攻行动。但是在长期资源短缺的情况下,维持如此庞大部队所需的成本和挑战,都让这件事成为不可能,”一名现役高级军官告诉Asia Times。

“At that time when cabinet sanctions came for 17 Corps, framed as a Strike Corps against China, we planned for three army divisions (about 12,000 personnel). But the funds never came so we started the new formations with existing war reserves. But as the Northern Army commander I couldn’t spare any, because all my troops were engaged in active operations in Kashmir and on the borders,” Hooda said.

“当时内阁批准从17个军中抽调人员,组成一个打击军团来对抗中国,所以我们计划建立三个师(大约12000人)。但是资金从未到位,所以我们开始用现有的战争储备开始新的编队。但是作为北方军司令,我无法抽出任何部队,因为我所有的部队都在克什米尔和边境地区执行任务,”Hooda 说。

These practical problems and a lack of funds forced the army to drop two of the planned three divisions. Today, 17 Corps has only one division that is being converted into independent battle groups.

这些实际问题和缺乏资金的情况,迫使陆军取消了计划中三个师中的两个。今天,17个军只有一个师转化成了独立的战斗群。

Unlike in the past, all major strike formations have been moved forward to their operational areas. This has greatly reduced the time needed to mobilize existing formations from a month to days. However, the size and orientation of the formations were unchanged until the latest exercise began.

与过去不同的是,所有主要的攻击编队都被推进到各自的作战区域。这使得调动现有部队所需的时间大大减少,从一个月减少至数天。然而,在最近一次演习开始之前,编队的大小和定位都没有变化。

“My recommendation was to do this in a three-year phase. Create test beds to exercise battle plans, review lessons learnt in the second year and then formally implement it in the third year,” said Hooda.

“我的建议是在三年内完成这项工作。(第一年)创建测试平台来执行作战计划,第二年回顾学到的经验教训,然后在第三年正式实施,”Hooda说。

Many serving and retired generals have also raised doubts about a Corps commander managing too many independent battle groups at a time. “This needs to be addressed from a command and control perspective,” another serving senior general said.

对于一个军团指挥官同时管理过多独立战斗群的问题,许多现役和退役的将军也提出了质疑。“这需要从指挥和控制的角度来解决,”另一名现役高级将领表示。

Gaps remain

【差距依然存在】

In September 2016, Pakistani terrorists struck an Indian brigade headquarters in the Uri sector in Kashmir, which led to India retaliating and launching raids by Special Forces units.

2016年9月,巴基斯坦恐怖分子袭击了位于克什米尔乌里地区的印度旅总部,引发了印度特种部队的报复和袭击。

“Those were synergized multiple cross-border raids. But they failed to deter Pakistan and terrorists again struck India in February 2019. Our air strikes on Balakot in Pakistan in February this year has helped create a new threshold below the nuclear threat,” General KJ Singh said.

“这些都是协同的多处跨境突袭行动。但是却未能遏制巴基斯坦和恐怖分子再次于2019年2月对印度发起袭击。我们今年2月对巴拉科特的空袭帮助创造了一个低于核威胁的新的门槛,”KJ Singh将军说。



While the Modi government has given the go-ahead to make these far-reaching changes, it also needs to work on cyber warfare and look at weapons that threaten its satellite assets in space.

尽管莫迪政府已经批准进行这些影响深远的改革,但它还需要致力于网络战,并研究那些对其太空卫星资产造成威胁的武器。